Missing teeth over a period of time can cause your jaw bone to resorb thereby reducing its height and width. This often compromises its quality and quantity for suitable placement of dental implants. Gaps in the dental arch form caused by missing teeth also result in shifting of the adjacent teeth resulting in loss of efficient chewing function. It is therefore quite important to replace any missing bone or preserve it as best as we can. Fortunately, today we have the ability to grow bone where it is needed. This gives us the opportunity to restore proper height and width of the jaw bone, for the successful placement of dental implants to restore functionality and aesthetic appearance.
There are different kinds of bone graft material...
Autogenous Bone Grafts
Autogenous bone grafts, are made from your own bone, taken from somewhere else in the body. The bone is typically harvested from the chin, jaw, lower leg bone, hip, or the skull. Autogenous bone grafts are advantageous in that the graft material is your own bone, meaning it contains living cellular elements that enhances bone growth, also eliminating the risk of your body rejecting the graft material since it comes from you. However, the disadvantage of an autograft is the necessity to create a second surgical wound in your body to harvest bone.
Allogenic bone, or allograft, is dead bone harvested from a cadaver, then processed using a freeze-dry method to extract the water and antigens. It serves as a framework, over which your body produces bone from the surrounding tissues that grows to fill the framework.
Xenogenic bone is derived from another species, usually a bovine source. The bone is processed at very high temperatures to avoid the potential for immune rejection and contamination. Like allogenic grafts, xenogenic grafts serve as a framework for bone from the surrounding area to grow into it.
Both allogenic and xenogenic bone grafting have an advantage of not requiring a second surgical site to harvest your own bone, as with autografts.
BONE GRAFT SUBSTITUTES
As a substitute to using real bone many synthetic materials are available as safe and proven alternatives, including:
Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM)/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA)
This product is processed allograft bone, containing collagen, proteins, and growth factors that are extracted from the allograft bone. It is available in the form of powder, putty, chips, or as a gel that can be injected through a syringe.
Graft composites consist of other bone graft materials and growth factors to achieve the benefits of a variety of substances. Some combinations may include: collagen/ceramic composite, which closely resembles the composition of natural bone, DBM combined with bone marrow cells, which aid in the growth of new bone, or a collagen/ceramic/autograft composite.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are proteins naturally produced in the body that promote and regulate bone formation and healing.
Synthetic materials also have the advantage of not requiring a second procedure to harvest bone, reducing risk and pain. Each bone grafting option has its own risks and benefits. At ROMS we will will determine which type of bone graft material best suited to your particular needs.
A socket preservation is a common dental procedure often performed following a tooth extraction. This procedure helps recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw that may have been lost due to bone loss from a tooth extraction, or for another reason. When a tooth is removed an empty socket is left in the alveolar ridge bone. Usually this empty socket will heal on its own, filling with bone and tissue. Sometimes the previous height and width of the socket will continue to deteriorate. Rebuilding the original height and width of the alveolar ridge is required for dental implant placement or for aesthetic purposes. Dental implants require bone to support their structure and a ridge augmentation/socket preservation can help rebuild this bone to accommodate the implant or other restorations.
This procedure is accomplished by placing bone graft material in the tooth socket. It is often done immediately after the tooth is removed to avoid the need for a second procedure later. Next, the gum tissue is placed over the socket and secured with sutures. Once the socket has healed, the alveolar ridge can be prepared for dental implant placement.
WHAT IS A SINUS LIFT?
The maxillary sinuses are behind your cheeks and on top of the upper teeth. These sinuses are empty, air-filled spaces. Some of the roots of the natural upper teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses. When these upper teeth are removed there is often just a thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. Dental implants need bone to hold them in place. When the sinus wall is very thin, it is impossible to place dental implants in this bone.
The key to a successful and long-lasting dental implant is the quality and quantity of jaw bone to which the implant will be attached. If bone loss has occurred due to injury or periodontal disease, a sinus augmentation can raise the sinus floor and allow for new bone formation. A sinus lift is one of the most common bone grafting procedures for patients with bone loss in the upper jaw. The procedure seeks to grow bone in the floor of the maxillary sinus above the bony ridge of the gum line that anchors the teeth in the upper jaw. This enables dental implants to be placed and secured in the new bone growth.
ARE YOU A CANDIDATE FOR A SINUS LIFT PROCEDURE?
A sinus lift may be necessary if you:
are missing more than one tooth in the back of your jaw
are missing a significant amount of bone in the back of your jaw
are missing teeth due to a birth defect or condition
are missing most of the maxillary teeth and require support for dental implants
Ultimately, your doctor will evaluate your case and advice you on the right treatment plan.